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The resultant monodehydroascorbate radical then undergoes enzymic or nonenzymic response to yield ascorbate and dehydroascorbate, neither of which is a radical. It acts as a lipid-soluble antioxidant in cell membranes, where a lot of its functions could be supplied by artificial antioxidants, and is necessary in sustaining the fluidity of cell membranes. The erythrocyte membranes are abnormally fragile on account of peroxidation, leading to hemolytic anemia. The lacking issue in the diet of the chickens was vitamin K, whereas the cattle feed contained dicumarol, an antagonist of the vitamin. Antagonists of vitamin K are used to reduce blood coagulation in patients at risk of thrombosis; probably the most extensively used is warfarin. Menadiol (or menadione) and menadiol diacetate are artificial compounds that are transformed to menaquinone in the liver. Initially, vitamin K hydroquinone is oxidized to the epoxide, which activates a glutamate residue in the protein substrate to a carbanion, which reacts nonenzymically with carbon dioxide to form -carboxyglutamate. Vitamin K epoxide is lowered to the quinone by a warfarin-delicate reductase, and the quinone is lowered to the lively hydroquinone by either the same warfarin-delicate reductase or a warfarininsensitive quinone reductase. If enough vitamin K (as the quinone) is supplied in the diet, it can be lowered to the lively hydroquinone by the warfarin-insensitive enzyme, and carboxylation can proceed, with stoichiometric utilization of vitamin K and excretion of the epoxide. Vitamin K Is Also Important in Synthesis of Bone Calcium-Binding Proteins Treatment of pregnant girls with warfarin can result in fetal bone abnormalities (fetal warfarin syndrome). Two proteins that include -carboxyglutamate are current in bone, osteocalcin, and bone matrix Gla protein. Osteocalcin also incorporates hydroxyproline, so its synthesis depends on both nutritional vitamins K and C; in addition, its synthesis is induced by vitamin D. Thiamin diphosphate is the coenzyme for three multi-enzyme complexes that catalyze oxidative decarboxylation reactions: pyruvate dehydrogenase in carbohydrate metabolism (Chapter 17); -ketoglutarate dehydrogenase in the citric acid cycle (Chapter 17); and the branched-chain keto-acid dehydrogenase concerned in the metabolism of leucine, isoleucine, and valine (Chapter 29). In every case, the thiamin diphosphate offers a reactive carbon on the thiazole moiety that types a carbanion, which then provides to the carbonyl group, eg, pyruvate. Thiamin diphosphate can also be the coenzyme for transketolase, in the pentose phosphate pathway (Chapter 21). Thiamin triphosphate has a task in nerve conduction; it phosphorylates, and so activates, a chloride channel in the nerve membrane. Carbanion concentrations of lactate and pyruvate, which can cause lifethreatening lactic acidosis. Because of this, flavin oxidases make a big contribution to the whole oxidant stress in the physique (Chapter 45). Thiamin Nutritional Status Can Be Assessed by Erythrocyte Transketolase Activation the activation of apo-transketolase (the enzyme protein) in erythrocyte lysate by thiamin diphosphate added in vitro has turn out to be the accepted index of thiamin nutritional standing. Riboflavin released by the catabolism of enzymes is rapidly integrated into newly synthesized enzymes. Deficiency is characterised by cheilosis, desquamation and inflammation of the tongue, and a seborrheic dermatitis. The niacin content material of meals is expressed as mg Niacin equivalents = mg Preformed niacin + 1/60 � mg Tryptophan Flavin Coenzymes Are Electron Carriers in Oxidoreduction Reactions these embody the mitochondrial respiratory chain, key enzymes in fatty acid and amino acid oxidation, and the citric acid cycle. Vitamin B6 Has Several Roles in Metabolism Pyridoxal phosphate is a coenzyme for a lot of enzymes concerned in amino acid metabolism, especially transamination and decarboxylation. Pellagra Is Caused by Deficiency of Tryptophan & Niacin Pellagra is characterised by a photosensitive dermatitis. Although the nutritional etiology of pellagra is well established, and tryptophan or niacin prevents or cures the disease, additional elements, together with deficiency of riboflavin or vitamin B6, both of which are required for synthesis of nicotinamide from tryptophan, may be necessary. In most outbreaks of pellagra, twice as many women as men are affected, most likely the result of inhibition of tryptophan metabolism by estrogen metabolites. Vitamin B6 Deficiency Is Rare Pellagra Can Occur as a Result of Disease Despite an Adequate Intake of Tryptophan & Niacin A number of genetic illnesses that lead to defects of tryptophan metabolism are associated with the event of pellagra, regardless of an apparently adequate consumption of both tryptophan and niacin. Moderate deficiency leads to abnormalities of tryptophan and methionine metabolism. Intakes of both nicotinic acid and nicotinamide in extra of 500 mg/day also cause liver harm. Vitamin B6 Status Is Assessed by Assaying Erythrocyte Transaminases probably the most extensively used technique of assessing vitamin B6 standing is by the activation of erythrocyte transaminases by pyridoxal phosphate added in vitro, expressed as the activation coefficient.

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So, retinal function may be restored, only if treatment is given with vitamin A before the visual receptors begin degenerating. This diagnostic procedure is helpful in figuring out retinal issues corresponding to cone dystrophy (degeneration of cones) and retinitis pigmentosa (hyperactivity of the pigmented retinal epithelial cells, leading to harm of photoreceptors and blindness). Recording electrode is positioned on the cornea of eye in its ordinary forward up looking place. Indifferent electrode is positioned over any moist floor of physique, like inside the mouth. Distant Vision Snellen chart is used to check the acuity of imaginative and prescient for dis- tant imaginative and prescient in the prognosis of refractive errors of the eye. In some animals like dog, rabbit and horse, the eyeballs are present at the sides of head. Thus, the visual area is restricted in all the edges, besides in the temporal half. The two photographs developed on retina of each eyes are fused into a single sensation. The single sensation is because of the ocular muscle tissue, which direct the axes of the eyes in such a way that the sunshine rays from the thing fall upon the corresponding factors of each retinas. In alcoholic intoxication, the imbalanced actions of ocular muscle tissue produce short-term diplopia 3. Experimental Diplopia Diplopia may be produced experimentally, by the following strategies: 1. Applying stress from outer facet of one eye and thus displacing the eye from its regular place 2. By holding an object like pen or pencil vertically in entrance of face, at about 5 cm from the foundation of nose. Light rays from temporal part of visual area of an eye fixed fall on the nasal half of retina of that eye. Similarly, the sunshine rays from nasal part of visual area fall on the temporal half of retina of the identical facet. Visual area can also be decided by Bjerrum (Tangent) screen or by confrontation check. In binocular imaginative and prescient, the sunshine rays from temporal (outer) half of visual area fall upon the nasal part of corresponding retina. The rays from nasal (inside) half of visual area fall upon the temporal part of retina. Fibers from the visual receptors synapse with dendrites of bipolar cells of inside nuclear layer of the retina. Each bipolar cell is connected to separate ganglionic cell, specifically midget ganglionic cell. This sort of private pathway is liable for visual acuity and intensity discrimination. The fibers from temporal part of retina are in lateral part of the nerve and carry the impulses from nasal half of visual area of same eye. The fibers from nasal part of retina are in medial part of the nerve and carry the impulses from temporal half of visual area of same eye. All the fibers of optic tract run backward, outward and in the direction of the cerebral peduncle. While reaching the peduncle, the fibers move between tuber cinereum and anterior perforated substance. Then, the fibers turn across the peduncle to attain the lateral geniculate physique in thalamus. Here, many fibers synapse whereas few fibers simply move via this and run in the direction of superior colliculus in midbrain. Some fibers from fovea of every facet move via the optic tract of same facet and others via the optic tract of opposite facet. Due to crossing of medial fibers in optic chiasma, the left optic tract carries impulses from temporal part of left retina and nasal part of proper retina, i. The proper optic tract accommodates fibers from nasal half of left retina and temporal half of proper retina. It is liable for imaginative and prescient in temporal half of left visual area and nasal half of proper visual area. Superior colliculus: It is concerned with reflex actions of eyeballs and head, in response to optic stimulus ii.

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Carrot juice in combination with juices of beet and cucumber, is very useful. The juice of French or string beans has also proved effective in the remedy of gout. The precise pain, however, arises from irritation to nerve endings in the shoulder, neck and scalp muscular tissues and likewise in the clean muscular tissues encircling the blood vessels which serve these areas. Moreover, the frequent use of pain-relievers causes nervous debility, weakens the heart and brings on different complications. The common causes of complications are allergy, emotional causes, eyestrain, hypertension, hangover, infection, low blood sugar, nutritional deficiency, pressure, the presence of poisons and toxins in the physique, and migraine. The meals to which some people are allergic and which might trigger complications are milk and milk merchandise, candies, chicken liver, alcohol and powerful cheese. Many people who outwardly appear to have a pleasing disposition may very well be simmering about a job, or may bear resentment in the direction of a person or one thing. Simple eye exercises corresponding to moving the eyes up and down and from side to side, palming, rotating the pinnacle, with neck outstretched, ahead and backward 3 times, then thrice clockwise and thrice anti-clockwise, can relieve eye-pressure. A safe methodology of remedy for this is to immerse your legs to calf-stage in a bathtub of scorching water for 15 to 20 minutes. This draws the blood away from the pinnacle and down to the feet, giving aid from the headache. A hangover headache could be averted by taking a vitamin B-1 (thiamine) tablet with the drink. For a cold, high doses of vitamin C must be taken at hourly intervals with the looks of the primary symptoms like a sore throat, runny nose, and so on. Low blood sugar is the result of an abused pancreas which over stimulates the manufacturing of insulin in the physique. It could be managed by eating smaller meals at brief intervals somewhat than the standard three massive meals day by day. The intake of carbohydrates must be cut down to the minimal and occasional must be eliminated as it over stimulates the pancreas. The headache generally seems earlier than the onset of anaemia, because of a chronic iron deficiency. Headache can also be introduced on because of the deficiency of B vitamins, specifically pantothenic acid, B-1 (thiamine), B-12 and B-6 (pyridoxine) and could be cured by taking these vitamins. Actually, the entire B complicated group itself serves as protection in opposition to complications, together with migraine. Tension complications are probably the commonest of all, and are brought on by emotional conflicts which lead to stress. Poisons and toxins admitted into the physique through meals, drinks and water, in addition to through respiration, polluted air, could cause any number of disturbances. Additives in meals and in many circumstances, cosmetics, pores and skin and hair merchandise are also severe offenders in bringing on complications. Migraine could be defined as a paroxysmal affection, accompanied by extreme headache, usually on one side of the pinnacle and related to problems of the digestion, the liver and the imaginative and prescient. It usually occurs when a person is under nice psychological pressure or has suddenly got over that state. Migraine is also known as "sick headache" because nausea and vomiting occasionally accompany the excruciating pain which lasts for as long as three days. Migraine usually offers warning earlier than it strikes: black spots or a brilliant zig-zag line seems earlier than the eyes or the affected person has blurring of imaginative and prescient or has a part of his imaginative and prescient blanked out. When the headache occurs, the affected person may really feel tingling, numbness, or weakness in an arm or leg. They are compulsive staff and perfectionists, who really feel that they should do every thing immediately. When a person relaxes suddenly, the constricted muscular tissues expand, stretching the walls of the blood-vessel. With every coronary heart beat, the blood being pushed through this vessels expands them additional and causes incredible pain. The finest treatment to prevent complications is to build up bodily resistance through proper nutrition, train and constructive thinking.

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Other water treatments embody scorching foot or leg tub for 10 minutes, scorching compress over the center changing it as tub cools down. Persons suffering from hypertension must ensure no less than eight hours of restful sleep, as a result of proper relaxation is a crucial aspect of the treatment. Most essential of all, the affected person must keep away from over-straining, worries, pressure, anger and haste. Each gland is composed of myriads of coiled tubes during which the sperm cells are produced. It is the function of these cells to fertilize the ovum throughout sexual intercourse. Symptoms the main symptom of hydrocele is painless, smooth and elastic enlargement of the scrotum. In some cases swelling is so much as to cause a substantial amount of inconvenience interfering significantly with walking. Consequently it may produce a substantial amount of stress upon the testicles and the spermatic vessels inflicting a detrimental impact upon the generative system. If a brilliant mild is positioned upon it in the dark the entire swelling lights up If the swelling become painful, it normally denotes that it has become infected. Causes the apparent cause of hydrocele could also be a knock or a pressure however toxic situation of the system is normally at the root of the matter. This systemic toxicity outcomes from mistaken dietary habits, general mistaken living and suppressive medical treatment of former diseases. Sexual excess and abuse is also an essential consider some cases, by way of the degeneration of the intercourse organism which follows. Sometimes gonorrhoel an infection, obstruction of the abdominal vein, tuberculosis and dropsy could also be the reason for this situation. In this case swelling is seen when the infant is an upright position and disappears when the infant is laid upon its again. Treatment Tapping is the method normally resorted to for elimination of the fluid in hydrocele. The right means during which the situation could be actually handled successfully is thru constitutional treatment. Such a treatment should purpose at eradicating the underlying toxicity of the system which is at the root of the difficulty. The sufferer from hydrocele should begin with an exclusive recent fruit food plan for seven to ten days. In this routine, he should have three meals a day of recent juicy fruits, corresponding to apples, pears, grapes, grape-fruit, oranges, pineapple, peaches, melon or any other juicy fruit in season however no bananas or dried, stewed or tinned fruit, and no different foodstuff whatever. After all all-fruit food plan the affected person may adopt the next routine: Breakfast: Fresh fruit as obtainable, or grated raw carrot or different raw salad-stuff, prunes or different dried fruits, if desired, and a cup of milk. Lunch: Steamed vegetables, as obtainable, with both a poached or scrambled egg or a vegetarian savory. Dinner: A good-sized raw salad, of any appropriate vegetable as obtainable, with whole wheat bread and butter, and prunes or different dried fruits as dessert. The food plan factor is of the utmost significance and fruits and salads must kind the main foundation of the long run dietary. Water Treatment Treatment by way of water is extremely useful in curing hydrocele. Cold hip baths twice every day within the morning and the night, for 10 minutes every time, are specially priceless. A scorching Epsom-salts tub is also very helpful within the treatment of hydrocele and should be taken a couple of times weekly, the place possible. Every effort should be made to build up the overall well being level to the best degree. All habits, and practices tending to lower the tone of the physique should be studiously avoided; pressure should be avoided so far as possible. Unless the situation persists for a very long time, the foregoing treatment should quickly begin to show its useful effects, and the entire general well being-level of the sufferer will be significantly enhanced at the same time. It is a situation during which the pancreas produces an excessive amount of insulin, inflicting the blood sugar to drop. Hypoglycemia generally happens in wholesome individuals some hours after a meal rich in carbohydrates, particularly following muscular exertion. It is incessantly discovered within the first few days of life, particularly among premature infants.

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  • Sillence syndrome
  • Pseudohermaphroditism
  • Chromosome 18, trisomy
  • Human granulocytic ehrlichiosis
  • Strumpell Lorrain disease
  • Genital retraction syndrome (also known as koro)
  • Nance Horan syndrome
  • Quinsy
  • Alternating hemiplegia of childhood

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They asked him to teach them how to make miso, and he taught her how to make miso. Junsei took it to Boston, Massachusetts, the place it was used by Michio and Aveline Kushi themselves. Starting in about 1965, when Chico moved to a bigger place, he made about 20 whiskey barrels stuffed with miso; each barrel held 320 lbs of miso. In 1980 Junsei and his wife purchased land in Orland, in northern California (Zip code 95963). He desires to make miso utilizing good elements, both cooperatively or in individual houses. He also desires to grow ume plum trees for making umeboshi [salt plums]; he tried this in Washington state however failed. That person was part of a bunch of people who tried to begin a farm in New Hampshire. Note: At Tassajara Zen Mountain Center (in the Santa Lucia Mountains, California), the scholars made miso long before 1974. Yamazaki also made about 3 barrels of fermented shoyu (soy sauce) at Chico-San in about 1965. Yamazaki also made about 3 barrels of fermented soy sauce at Chico-San�in about 1965. Loring discovered this from someone on the Minneapolis, Zen Center (Minnesota), and it might even be in her guide on beans. Again add the same quantity of water, prepare dinner the beans as required, then discard the cooking water again. Since flatulence factors or oligosaccharides are water-soluble sugars, most will dissolve in the water and be discarded with it. Loring has no reminiscences of creating miso at Zen Mountain Center at Tassajara in the Santa Lucia Mountains; he was in San Francisco when we made miso at Tassajara. In 1972 Loring made miso from ready-made koji, a course of he discovered from Herman Aihara. But George Gearhardt and Blake made miso again in 1974-75, after Blake returned from a visit to Japan. The maximum in the works was 500 kilos�again in the days when they owned Janus Natural Foods, in Seattle. In early 1974 they made a variety of small batches, then when these turned out nicely they made a variety of bigger batches at Janus. At the end of 1975, when doing a 30-day koji run he did informal courses inviting 6 people from the Seattle Zen Center. A single huge batch was 40-50 kilos; then some people in the Zen heart made miso utilizing the groups koji. Their former plant in Los Angeles had 5,500 square feet of manufacturing house and 5,500 square feet of storage space. Per Fruergaard began Tofu Denmark in Valby and has encountered authorized problems relating to using nigari. Jonathan Company in Ekeren makes 3000 kilos of tofu weekly, along with seitan, mochi, soups, canned meals, and soymilk. Manna itself markets tofu spreads and distributes a joint gear value listing with Takai Company of Japan. In Portugal, Unimave promotes soy as part of the macrobiotic diet and makes small quantities of tofu and soymilk; Jose Parracho in Setubal is beginning a selfsufficient heart involving tofu and tempeh manufacturing. Tofu producers are Swame [sic, Swami] Anand Svadesha in Furthim-Wald, Thomas Kasas [sic, Karas] who installed a tofu system last summer season at his Bittersuess [later Soyastern] in Cologne, and Alexander Nabben in Munich. And Switzerland is the house of 4 soy firms including Restaurant Sesam in Bern, an active macrobiotic heart with homescale tofu and seitan manufacturing; Marty Halsey makes tofu in Nyon; Hans Opplinger produces tofu in Chan; and Verena Krieger operates Sojalade in Luzern (Lucerne). Krieger then established her shop to meet the anticipated tofu demand stirred up by her article. Swiss nationwide television ran a 30 minute feature on soybeans this 12 months in which Krieger made a short demonstration of 5 tofu dishes. Jap; eng] � Summary: Red koji (beni-koji), made my rising Monascus mold on steamed rice, is an important materials for manufacturing tofuyo (red soybean cheese). Two kg of steamed rice inoculated with one hundred twenty gm of koji starter (tan�koji, floor in water) was wrapped in a material and incubated at 32�C. After 38 hours of incubation, the temperature of the materials was managed (kept from overheating) by mixing them by hand.

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Basis Pedunculus Basis pedunculus consists of pyramidal tract fibers in the middle, temporopontine fibers laterally and frontopontine fibers medially. Substantia nigra is taken into account as one of many components of basal ganglia (Chapter 151). Tegmentum Tegmentum lies dorsal to substantia nigra and is actually the upward continuation of the reticular formation in pons. These fibers are predominantly efferent fibers from dentate nucleus of cerebellum; few fibers are from other cerebellar nuclei similar to nucleus globosus and nucleus emboliformis. Forel decussation, which is because of the crossing of rubrospinal tracts from either facet iii. Red Nucleus Red nucleus is a big oval or round mass of gray matter, extending between the superior colliculus and hypothalamus. Superior Colliculus Superior colliculus is a small construction and is an important heart for reflexes. Through tectospinal tract, superior colliculus controls the movements of the eyes, head, trunk and limbs, in response to visual impulses. Superior colliculus additionally receives afferents from optic tract, which helps in the integration of optical and postural reflexes. Inferior Colliculus Inferior colliculus consists of single layer of neurons to which the lateral lemniscus (auditory fibers) synapses. Connections of pink nucleus Afferent connections: Red nucleus receives fibers from: 1. Nucleus parvocellularis, which receives fibers from motor cortex (area 6) � corticorubral fibers. Nucleus magnocellularis, which receives fibers from motor cortex (area 6) � pallidorubral fibers 3. Nucleus magnocellularis, which receives fibers from dentate nucleus (of reverse facet) � cerebellorubral or dentatorubral tract. Efferent connections: Red nucleus sends efferent fibers to varied parts of mind and spinal twine: 1. Control of muscle tone: Because of its connections with cerebellum, vestibular apparatus and skeletal muscle, the pink nucleus plays an necessary position in facilitating the muscle tone. Control of complex muscular movements: Red nucleus controls the complex muscular movements. It plays an necessary position in the integration of various impulses acquired from many necessary areas of mind. Control of righting reflexes: Red nucleus is the center for all righting reflexes besides optical righting reflexes (Chapter 157). Control of movements of eyeball: Through its efferent connections with nuclei of 3rd, 4th and 6th cranial nerves, pink nucleus plays an necessary position in the control of ocular movements (Chapter a hundred sixty five). Control of skilled movements: Red nucleus plays an necessary position in controlling the skilled muscular movements by its connections with spinal twine and cerebral cortex. Thalami on either side are connected in their rostral parts by the use of an intermediate mass. Midline nuclei Intralaminar nuclei Medial mass of nuclei Lateral mass of nuclei Posterior group of nuclei. Midline nuclei are a bunch of small nuclei, situated on the medial surface of thalamus near the midline. Intralaminar Nuclei Intralaminar nuclei are smaller nuclei present in the medullary septum of thalamus. Medial Mass of Nuclei Medial mass of nuclei are situated medial to septum and it contains two nuclei: i. It consists of two parts: � Ventral posterolateral nucleus � Ventral posteromedial nucleus. Posterior Group of Nuclei Posterior group of nuclei are the continuation of lateral mass of nuclei. Thalamic reticular nucleus Thalamus additionally includes thalamic reticular nucleus, which is a skinny layer of neurons covering the lateral side of thalamus. It receives info from reticular formation, cerebral cortex and other thalamic and sends inhibitory alerts to other thalamic nuclei. Red = Midline nucleus, Yellow = Intralaminar nuclei, Green = Medial mass of nuclei, Blue = Lateral mass of nuclei, Pink = Posterior group of nuclei.

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Candidates also erroneously thought that family planning prevented the spread of sexually transmitted infections. It is strongly recommended that extra innovative methods be utilized to absolutely clarify the reproductive course of and to clear up these frequent misconceptions. They were also unable to recommend components, apart from illness, that could affect respiratory fee. Presentations/discussions/lectures could be given on the respiratory course of and components that affect its fee. First help personnel could also be employed to give demonstrations on the sensible features of first help. Most candidates were able to accurately outline the phrases mentioned within the question. When drawing meals chains, candidates are still not sure of the course by which the arrows ought to be drawn. Candidates also consider that insecticides affect plants and never bugs and were unable to analyse the meals chain and the results of organic control on it. It is recommended, subsequently, that deductive reasoning methods be employed when educating this subject. Field trips could be made to farms and discussions held with farmers as to their methods of pest control and the potential effects on the environment. Paper 02 consisted of ten obligatory structured questions in Section A and four essay questions in Section B, of which candidates were required to answer any two. This decline in efficiency was largely as a result of poor efficiency on Paper 02, which declined from a mean of forty two per cent in 2009 to a mean of 37 per cent in 2010. The appropriate answer was.Thrombin and Calcium ion, however most candidates selected "Thrombin". Food tests this question tested candidates data of the results of meals tests, given four tests and observations. The menstrual cycle this merchandise tested candidates data of the start of the cycle. While many candidates knew that the right answer was.With the breakdown of the uterine wall, a big proportion selected "At ovulation". Stage of the life cycle of the housefly at which pesticides are best this merchandise tested candidates data of the stage of the housefly at which pesticides are best. The appropriate answer is on the "Larval stage", but the majority of candidates selected the "Adult stage". Natural energetic and pure passive immunity this subject was tested using two gadgets. The first involved a young girl having had typhoid as a child, recovering, however by no means getting it again even after repeated publicity. While most candidates knew that this was "pure energetic immunity", a big proportion selected "pure passive immunity". The appropriate answer was "Using landfills", however, most candidates selected "Recycling". Paper 02 � Structured Essays Section A comprised ten questions, each price 10 marks. Some, however used the time period.respiratory rather than.respiration and.vitamins and.digestion instead Recommendation to teachers Where potential, teachers should use diagrams and graphs in educating. PowerPoint displays could be used to present diagrams and graphs extra successfully. Most candidates were able to label the lens on the diagram of the attention and knew the definition of accommodation. However, they were unable to label the sclera or choroid layer and were usually not able to describe the features of the rods and cones within the eye. Recommendations to teachers Diagrams ought to be used for college kids to practise labelling the attention. The question tested candidates data of joints, muscles, tendons and ligaments.

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Examples of complementary colors are purple and greenish blue; orange and cyan blue; yellow and indigo blue; violet and greenish yellow; purple and inexperienced. Different colour sensations are produced by the stimulation of various combinations of those three types of cones. For sensation of white mild, all the three types of cones are stimulated equally. The delicate filaments of nerves give response selectively to one or other of the three major colors. He studied the motion potentials in ganglionic cells, which are stimulated by mild and obtained some sensitivity curves. Sensitivity curves were recorded by utilizing different wavelengths of light both in mild-adapted and dark-adapted eyes. On the basis of those sensitivity curves, Granit categorised the ganglionic cells into two groups particularly, dominators and modulators. Dominators for cones, which respond in lightadapted eye and a broad sensitivity curve is produced with the utmost response around the wavelengths 55 � ii. Dominators for rods, which respond in darkadapted eye and in the sensitivity curve the utmost response is given at the wavelengths of 500 �. Modulators of blue, which are stimulated by mild with wavelengths of 450 to 470 � ii. Modulators of inexperienced, which are stimulated by mild with wavelengths of 520 to 540 � iii. If inexperienced mild falls on retina, modulators of inexperienced are stimulated and other two are less affected. Each one possesses its personal photosensitive Chapter a hundred and seventy t Color Vision 1001 (rods) and light-adapted (cones) eyes. All the seven receptors are divided into three models: First Unit First unit is a tricolor unit consisting of receptors for orange, inexperienced and blue. Second Unit Second unit is a dicolor unit with receptors for yellow and blue colors. Each substance produces the sensation of a specific colour by its breakdown or resynthesis. Its breakdown causes sensation of white and resynthesis causes sensation of black. Its breakdown causes sensation of yellow and resynthesis causes sensation of blue. This concept explains the successive distinction and afterimages, however not the simultaneous sensation of antagonistic colors. When black is placed in opposition to white or white in opposition to black, these two colors set each other off, i. Maximum effect of simultaneous distinction is obtained when the complementary colors are paired. Reason for simultaneous distinction is that, the stimulation of an area of retina by one colour modifies the response in the surrounding or neighboring areas. When an individual looks at a inexperienced object after looking at a brilliant purple, the inexperienced object appears to be more greenish. Reason for successive distinction is that, the stimulation of an area of retina modifies its sensitivity to the successive stimuli. After looking at a brilliant object, if the eyes are closed, the image remains more distinct for some time after which fades away steadily. After looking at a brilliant object, if the eyes are closed or fastened on a black floor, the afterimage appears to be brilliant and with identical colour of the object. After looking at brilliant object, if the eyes are fastened on white floor (as a substitute of closing or fixing on a black floor), the afterimage appears in complementary colour. Reason for negative afterimage is the persistence of activity in retina, even after the particular stimulus ceases to act. Aging Color blindness can occur after 60 years of age because of numerous modifications in eye. Monochromatism Monochromatism is the condition characterized by total inability to understand colour. Retina of monochromats is completely insensitive to colour and so they see the whole spectrum in solely black, white and different shades of grey.